Encyclopedia

Kuyambira wiki
Yendani kuziyendetsa Ikani kuti mufufuze

Chinsinsi: Kufotokozera kwapafupi Chinsinsi: Zokhudza Chinsinsi: Pp-theka-indef Chinsinsi: Pp-kusuntha-kosatha Chinsinsi: Ntchito mdy masiku

Mavoliyumu a buku la 15 la Encyclopædia Britannica (Kuphatikiza buku la chaka cha 2002) opezeka bookshelves awiri ku laibulale.
Tsamba lamutu la Ma Lucubration, 1541 magazini, limodzi mwa mabuku oyamba ntchito zosinthika mawu encyclopedia pamutu

An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (Chingerezi cha Britain) ndi buku or kuphatikiza kupereka chidule cha chidziwitso ngakhale kuchokera ku nthambi zonse kapena kuchokera kudera linalake kapena kulangidwa.[1] Encyclopedias agawidwa nkhani kapena zolemba zomwe nthawi zambiri zimakonzedwa Potengela Zilembo dzina lake[2] ndipo nthawi zina mwa mitu yankhani. Zolemba za Encyclopedia ndi zazitali komanso zatsatanetsatane kuposa zambiri otanthauzira mawu.[2] Nthawi zambiri, mosiyana ndi zolemba zamatanthauzidwe - zomwe zimayang'ana zilankhulo zambiri zokhudza mawu, monga awo etymology, tanthauzo, katchulidwe, kagwiritsidwe ntchito, ndi mitundu ya galamala — zolemba za maensaikulopediya zimayang'ana zoona zambiri zokhudza mutu womwe watchulidwa pamutuwu.[3][4][5][6]

Buku la Encyclopedias lakhala likuchitika zaka pafupifupi 2,000 ndipo lidasinthiratu nthawi imeneyo ngati chilankhulo (cholembedwa m'chinenerochi kapena chachikulu), kukula kwake ), kaonedwe chikhalidwe (buku maganizo, didactic, yothandiza), olemba (oyenerera, kalembedwe), amaŵerenga (mlingo maphunziro, maziko, zofuna, mphamvu), ndi umisiri alipo kupanga awo ndi kugawa (dzanja olembedwa pamanja, wamng'ono kapena kusindikiza kwakukulu, Internet). Monga gwero labwino lazidziwitso zodalirika zomwe akatswiri adalemba, zosindikizidwa zidapeza malo otchuka m'malaibulale, masukulu ndi mabungwe ena ophunzira.

Maonekedwe a mitundu ya digito ndi magwero-wamba m'zaka za zana la 21 zakulitsa kwambiri kupezeka, zolemba, kuwerenga, ndi mitundu mitundu ya maensaikulidwe.

Etymology

Chidule: Quote box

Mawu awiri achi Greek samamvetsetsa ngati amodzi

Mawu encyclopedia (encyclo|pedia) ochokera kwa Chi Greek Greek Chinsinsi: Lang,[7] otanthauzira enkyklios paedia, kutanthauza "maphunziro wamba" kuchokera enkyklios (ἐγἐγύ λλλ[8] ndi paedia (ππ δπδ), kutanthauza "maphunziro, kulera mwana"; pamodzi, mawuwa amatanthauzira kuti "malangizo onse" kapena "chidziwitso chathunthu".[9] Komabe, mawu awiriwa adasinthidwa kukhala liwu limodzi chifukwa cholakwitsa[10] ndi okopera a Latin zolemba pamanja za Quintillian mu 1470.[11] Okopera adatengera mawuwa kukhala liwu limodzi lachi Greek, enkyklopaedia, ndi tanthauzo lofananalo, ndipo liwu lachigiriki lachifanizoli linakhala Chilatini Chatsopano mawu "encyclopaedia", omwe nawonso adalowa Chingerezi. Chifukwa cha mawu ophatikizika awa, owerenga zaka khumi ndi zisanu ndi zinayi ndipo kuyambira nthawi zambiri, komanso molakwika, amaganiza kuti olemba achi Roma Quintillian ndi Pliny anafotokozera mtundu wakale.[12]

Kugwiritsa ntchito kwa mau m'ma XNUMX

Tsamba lamutu la Skalich Encyclopaediæ, seu orbis Baptlinarum, tam phrarum quam prophanarum, epistemon kuyambira 1559, mawu omveka bwino a mawu encyclopaedia pamutu.[13]

M'zaka za zana la chisanu ndi chimodzi panali zofunikira kudziwa momwe angagwiritsire ntchito mawuwa. Monga momwe maudindo angapo akusonyezera, panalibe lingaliro labwinolo ponena za matchulidwe ake kapena udindo wake monga dzina. Mwachitsanzo: A Jacobus Philomusus Chinsinsi: Lang (1508); Johannes Aventinus's Chinsinsi: Lang; Joachimus Fortius Ringelbergius's Chinsinsi: Lang (1538, 1541); Paul Skalich's Chinsinsi: Lang (1559); Gregor Reisch's Chinsinsi: Lang (1503, yotchedwa Encyclopaedia mu 1583); ndi Samuel Eisenmenger's Chinsinsi: Lang (1585).[14]

Pakhala zitsanzo ziwiri zakale wamba kugwiritsa ntchito mawu ophatikizika. Pafupifupi chaka cha 1490, a Franciscus Puccius adalemba kalata ku Politius akumuthokoza chifukwa chake Miscellanea, nkumawatcha encyclopedia.Chinsinsi: Sfn Nthawi zambiri, François Rabelais yatchulidwa pakugwiritsa ntchito kwake akuti Pantagruel (1532).[15][16]

Chokwanira -p (a) edia

Ma ensaikulopediya angapo ali ndi mayina omwe amaphatikizira mawuwo -p (a) edia, kuyika malembawo kukhala amtundu wa maensaikulopediya. Chitsanzo ndi Banglapedia (pazinthu zofunikira ku Bangladesh).

Kugwiritsa ntchito kwakanthawi

Masiku ano m'Chingerezi, mawuwa amapezeka kwambiri encyclopedia, ngakhale encyclopaedia (kuchokera encyclopædia) imagwiritsidwanso ntchito ku Britain.[17]

makhalidwe

Miyeso yoyenera ya ma encyclopedia achikhalidwe, tsamba 2.0 ndi Wikipedia
Magawo abwino am'mabuku akale amakono, Tsamba la 2.0 ndi Wikipedia[18]

Ensaikulopediya yamakono idapangidwa kuchokera ku dikishonale m'zaka za zana la 18. M'mbuyomu, mabuku onse ofufuza komanso mabuku otanthauzira mawu akhala akufufuzidwa komanso kulembedwa ndi anthu ophunzira kwambiri, komanso odziwa zambiri akatswiri, koma ndiosiyana mosiyanasiyana. Mtanthauzira mawu ndi ntchito ya chilankhulo yomwe imayang'ana kwambiri pamndandanda wa zilembo za mawu ndi awo matanthauzo. Zosadziwika Mawu ndi omwe akukhudzidwa ndi nkhaniyo amapezeka atabalalika mozungulira mtanthauzira mawu, osapatsa maloonekeratu chithandizo. Chifukwa chake, dikishonale imakhala yochepa mudziwe, kusanthula kapena maziko a mawu omwe afotokozedwawo. Ngakhale lingapereke tanthauzo, lingasiye owerenga akusowa kumvetsa tanthauzo, tanthauzo kapena malire a akuti, ndi momwe mawuwo akukhudzidwira ndi gawo lonse la chidziwitso. Ensaikulopediya ndi,, osati, yolembedwa pofuna kutsimikizira, ngakhale kuti imodzi mwazolinga zake ndi kutsimikizira owerenga ake kuti akutsimikiza.

Kuti muthane ndi zosowa izi, cholembedwa cha encyclopedia sichimangokhala ndi tanthauzo losavuta, ndipo sikuti amangotanthauzira mawu amodzi, koma imapereka tanthauzo lochulukirapo kwa mutu kapena chilango. Kuphatikiza pa kufotokozera ndi kutchulanso mawu ofanana pamutuwo, nkhaniyo imathanso kumvetsetsa tanthauzo la mutuwo mozama kwambiri ndikuwunikira chidziwitso chofunikira kwambiri pankhaniyo. Nkhani yama encyclopedia nthawi zambiri imaphatikizanso yambiri mapu ndi mafanizo, komanso zolemba ndi ziwerengero.

Zinthu zinayi zazikuluzikulu zimafotokozera za encyclopedia: nkhani yake, kukula kwake, njira yake, ndi momwe amapangira:

  • Encyclopedias imatha kukhala yopezeka paliponse, yomwe imakhala ndi zolemba pamitu iliyonse (chilankhulo cha Chingerezi) Encyclopædia Britannica ndi waku Germany Brockhaus ndi zitsanzo zodziwika bwino). Ma ensaikulopediya onse amatha kukhala ndi malangizo amomwe angachitire zinthu zosiyanasiyana, komanso mabuku otanthauzira mawu ndi gazette.Chinsinsi: Kufunika Palinso ma ensaikulopediya yomwe imakamba mitu yosiyanasiyana kuchokera pamitundu, mtundu, kapena malingaliro amdziko, monga Great Soviet Encyclopedia or Encyclopaedia Judaica.
  • Ntchito za encyclopedic scope cholinga chofalitsa chidziwitso chofunikira chambiri cha magawo awo a nkhani, monga ma encyclopedia ya mankhwala, nzeru or chilamulo. Ntchito zimasiyana kutalika kwa nkhani komanso kuya kwakukambirana, kutengera cholinga cha omvera.
  • Njira ina mwadongosolo yopanga makonzedwe ndikofunikira popangitsa kuti encyclopedia ikhale ndi mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito. Pakhala pali njira ziwiri zazikulu zopangira ma encyclopedia osindikizidwa: zilembo njira (yophatikiza zolemba zingapo zosiyana, zopangidwa motengera zilembo) ndi bungwe la zochitika zamakono magulu. Njira yakale masiku ano ndi yofala kwambiri, makamaka pa ntchito wamba. The fluidity wa zamagetsi, komabe, timalola mwayi watsopano wa njira zingapo za bungwe zomwe zili zomwezi. Komanso, zamagetsi zamagetsi zimapereka kuthekera kwatsopano pakusaka, kulongosola ndi mtanda. The epigraph kuchokera Horace patsamba laudindo la zaka za zana la 18 Encyclopédie ikuwonetsa kufunikira kwa kapangidwe ka enisaikulopediya: "Chisomo chiti chomwe chingawonjezedwe pazinthu wamba mothandizidwa ndi kulamula ndi kulumikizana."
  • Monga momwe makinema amakono komanso zaka zazidziwitso zasinthira, njira zatsopano zatulukira, kuwerengera, kutsimikizira, ndi kuwonetsa zambiri zamitundu yonse. Ntchito monga Chilichonse2, Encarta, h2g2ndipo Wikipedia ndi zitsanzo zamitundu yatsopano ya maensaikulopediya monga zolemba zambiri zimakhala zosavuta. Njira yopangira encyclopedia yakale yathandizidwa pazinthu zopindulitsa komanso zopanda phindu. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia zomwe zatchulidwa pamwambapa zinali zothandizidwa ndi boma, pomwe Britannica idathandizidwa ngati bungwe lopangira ndalama. Poyerekeza, Wikipedia imathandizidwa ndi odzipereka omwe amathandizira kumalo osagwirizana ndi mabungwe a Wikimedia Foundation.

Ntchito zina zotchedwa "otanthauzira" ndizofanana ndi maensaikulopediya, makamaka iwo amene akukhudzidwa ndi gawo linalake (monga Dictionary wa Ages Middle, ndi Kutanthauzira kwa Sitima Zankhondo zaku Americandipo Black M'chilamulo Dictionary). The Mtanthauzira mawu wa Macquarie, Mtanthauzira mawu ku Australia, adakhala Mtanthauzira mawu a encyclopedic itatha kusindikizidwa koyamba pakuzindikira kugwiritsa ntchito mayina oyenera polumikizana, ndi mawu ochokera ku mayina oyenera.

Pali zosiyana zingapo pakati pa maensaikulopediya ndi otanthauzira mawu. Chowonekera kwambiri, zolemba za ma encyclopedia ndizitali, ndizokwanira komanso ndizokwanira kuposa zolemba m'matanthauzidwe ambiri.[2][19] Palinso zosiyana pankhani. Nthawi zambiri, mabuku otanthauzira mawu amapereka zilankhulo chidziwitso cha mawu enieniwo, pamene maensaikulopediya amayang'ana kwambiri za mawuwo.[3][4][5][6] Chifukwa chake, ngakhale zomasulira za mtanthauzira zimakhazikitsidwa mosasinthika ku mawu omwe afotokozedwawo, zolemba za ma encyclopedia zitha kupatsidwa dzina lina lolowera. Mwakutero, zolemba za mtanthauzira sizimasulira mokwanira mu zilankhulo zina, koma zolemba za encyclopedia zitha.[3]

Zochita, komabe, kusiyanitsa sikumakhala konkriti, popeza kuti palibe kusiyana pakati pa zenizeni, "chidziwitso" cha encyclopedic ndi chidziwitso cha zilankhulo monga momwe zimawonekera m'madikishonale.[5][19][20] Chifukwa chake ma encyclopedia amatha kukhala ndi zinthu zomwe zimapezekanso mu mabuku otanthauzira mawu, komanso mosemphanitsa.[20] Makamaka, zolemba zamatanthauzidwe nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi chidziwitso chodziwika bwino cha chinthu chomwe chimatchulidwa ndi mawu.[19][20]

Zambiri mu maensaikulopu achikhalidwe zitha kuyesedwa ndi miyeso zogwirizana ndi zotere khalidwe kukula ngati ulamuliro, kukwanira, mtundu, kuyang'ana, kalembedwe, nthawi ndi kupatula.[18]

History

Chinsinsi: Chapakati Buku la Encyclopedia adapita patsogolo kuchokera pa mawonekedwe akale, kusindikiza masiku amakono. Masiku ano zitha kugawidwa ndikuwonetsedwa pakompyuta.

Kale

Naturalis Mbirie, Kusindikizidwa kwa 1669, tsamba laudindo

Chimodzi mwazinthu zakale kwambiri zakale kwambiri ndi Naturalis Mbirie of Pliny Mkulu, ndi Aroma yemwenso amakhala m'zaka za zana loyamba AD. Adalemba buku la mitu 37 yokhudza mbiri ya chilengedwe, zomangamanga, zamankhwala, jografia, jiografia, ndi zina zadziko lapansi momuzungulira. Adanenanso m'mawu oyamba kuti adalemba zolemba 20,000 kuchokera ku 2000 zomwe amagwira ndi olemba 200, ndikuwonjezera ena ambiri pazomwe adakumana nazo. Ntchitoyi idasindikizidwa kuzungulira AD 77-79, ngakhale Pliny mwina sanamalize kukonza ntchito asanamwalire kuphulika Vesuvius mu AD 79.[21]

Zaka zapakatikati

Isidore waku Seville, mmodzi waophunzira ophunzira kwambiri oyambirira Zaka zapakatikati, amadziwika kwambiri polemba buku loyamba la Middle Ages, a Etymologiae (Ma Etymologies) kapena magwero (mozungulira 630), momwe adapangira gawo lalikulu la maphunziro omwe amapezeka panthawi yake, onse akale komanso amakono. Ntchitoyi ili ndi machaputala 448 m'mavoliyumu 20, ndipo ndiwofunika chifukwa mawu ndi zidutswa za zolemba za olemba ena omwe zikadakhala kuti sanazitenga.

Ensaikulopediya yotchuka kwambiri ya Carolingian Age anali De universo or De rerum naturis by Rabanus Maurus, olembedwa pafupifupi 830; zidakhazikitsidwa Etymologiae.[22]

Ensaikulopediya ya madzi, buku lodziwika bwino kwambiri la Byzantine la m'zaka za zana la 10, linali ndi zolemba 30, zojambula zambiri zakale zomwe zidatayika kale, ndipo nthawi zambiri zimachokera ku nthawi zakale Christian othandizira. Lembali linakonzedwa motsatizana ndi zilembo pang'ono kuchokera pamawu wamba komanso malo amu zilembo zachi Greek.

The kuphatikizira kwachidziwitso kwa Asilamu ku Middle Ages panali ntchito zambiri. Pazaka 960, the Abale a Chiyero of Basra anali kuchita nawo Encyclopedia of the Brothers of Purity.[23] Ntchito zodziwika bwino zimaphatikizapo Abu Bakr al-Razi.. encyclopedia ya sayansi, Mutazilite Al-Kindikutulutsa kwakukulu kwa mabuku 270, ndipo Ibn Sinaencyclopedia ya zamankhwala, yomwe inali buku lodziwika bwino kwazaka zambiri. Zodziwikanso ndi ntchito za mbiri yapadziko lonse (kapena chikhalidwe) kuchokera Aasarati, al-Tabri, al-Masudi, Tabari's Mbiri ya Aneneri ndi Mafumu, Ibn Rustah, al-Athirndipo Ibn Khaldun, amene Muqadimmah ili ndi machenjezo okhudza kukhulupirika pazolembedwa zomwe zikugwirabe ntchito lero.

Ntchito yayikulu yolembedwa ku China ya Mabuku Anai A Nyimbo, wopangidwa ndi zaka za zana la 11 kumayambiriro Nyimbo yolamulira (960–1279), inali ntchito yayikulu yolemba panthawiyi. Buku lomaliza la anayiwo, Prime Tortoise wa Record Bureau, anali 9.4 miliyoni Zilembo zaku China m'mavoliyumu 1000 olembedwa. "Nthawi ya zolembalemba" zidayamba kuyambira zaka za zana la khumi ndi chisanu ndi chisanu ndi chiwiri, pomwe boma la China lidagwiritsa ntchito mazana a akatswiri kuti aphatikize maenisaikulopediya akuluakulu.[24] Yaikulu kwambiri yomwe ndi Buku la Yongle; inamalizidwa mu 1408 ndipo panali ma folio pafupifupi 23,000.[24]

Chakumapeto kwa zaka za ku Europe, olemba angapo anali ndi chiyembekezo chofuna kulemba kuchuluka kwa chidziwitso cha anthu mdera lina kapena mwachitsanzo, mwachitsanzo Bartholomew waku England, Vincent wa Beauvais, Radulfus Ardens, Sydrac, Brunetto Latini, Giovanni da Sangiminiano, Pierre Bersuire. Ena anali akazi, monga Hildegard waku Bingen ndi Herrad wa ku Landsberg. Zopambana kwambiri pazomwe adalemba anali Speculum maius (Great Mirror) of Vincent wa Beauvais ndi De proprietatibus rerum (Pa Zinthu Zambiri) by Bartholomew waku England. Omaliza adamasuliridwa (kapena kusinthidwa) kukhala French,, Provençal, Chitaliyana, English, Flemish, Anglo-Norman, Spanishndipo German pa Middle Ages. Onsewa adalembedwa zaka za m'ma 13. Palibe ma encyclopedia akale ndi mutuwu Encyclopaedia - anali kuyitanidwa nthawi zambiri Pa chilengedwe (De natura, De naturis rerum), Mirror (Speculum maius, Speculum universale), Chuma (Trésor).[25]

Renaissance

Anatomy mu Margarita Philosophica, 1565

Ma encyclopedia amakedzana onse anali olembedwa pamanja motero amapezeka makamaka ndi olemera olera kapena amuna apamwamba a maphunziro; anali okwera mtengo, ndipo nthawi zambiri amalembera omwe amafalitsa chidziwitso osati omwe amawagwiritsa ntchito.[26]

pa Renaissance, chilengedwe cha yosindikiza adalola kuphatikiza kwakukulu kwa maensaikulopediya ndipo katswiri aliyense amatha kukhala ndi buku lake. The De expetendis et fugiendis rebus by Giorgio Valla idasindikizidwa pambuyo pake ndi 1501 ndi Aldo Manuzio in Venice. Ntchitoyi idatsata njira zamakono zopangira zojambulajambula. Komabe, Valla adawonjezera kumasulira kwa ntchito yakale yachi Greek pamasamu (poyamba ndi Archimedes),, omwe adapezeka kumene ndi kumasulira. The Margarita Philosophica by Gregor Reisch, yomwe imasindikizidwa mu 1503, inali buku lokhalo lokwanira kufotokoza zaluso zisanu ndi ziwirizo.

Teremuyo encyclopaedia linapangidwa ndi anthu onyentchera a m'zaka za zana la 16 omwe amawerenga molakwika zolemba zawo Pliny[27] ndi Quintilian,[28] ndikuphatikiza mawu awiri achi Greek "enkyklios paedia"m'mawu amodzi,[29] Mawu akuti enkyklios paedia (ἐγἐγύύ λλλλ)) idagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi Plutarch ndipo mawu achi Latin akuti encyclopaedia amachokera kwa iye.

Ntchito yoyamba yotchulidwa motere inali Encyclopedia orbisque cosmetrinarum, hoc est omnium artium, scientiarum, ipsiusilosophiae index ac divisio zolembedwa ndi Johannes Aventinus mu 1517.Chinsinsi: Kufunika

Dotolo wachi Ngelezi komanso wafilosofi, Sir Thomas Browne anagwiritsa ntchito mawu oti 'encyclopaedia' mu 1646 m'mawu oyamba kwa owerenga kutanthauzira ake Pseudodoxia Epidemica, ntchito yayikulu pakusintha kwasayansi kwazaka za zana la 17. Browne adakonza encyclopaedia yake pa dongosolo lolemekezeka la Renaissance, lotchedwa 'kukula kwa chilengedwe' lomwe limakwera kudzera m'maminolo, masamba, nyama, anthu, mapulaneti komanso chilengedwe. Pseudodoxia Epidemica anali wogulitsa ku Europe, womasuliridwa m'Chifalansa, Chidatchi, ndi Chijeremani komanso Chilatini zidadutsa zosaposa zisanu, chilichonse chidasinthidwa ndikulimbikitsidwa, kope lomaliza kuonekera mu 1672.

Zachuma, zamalonda, zamalamulo, komanso zaluso zidasintha kukula kwa ma encyclopedia. Nthawi ya Renaissance, magulu apakati anali ndi nthawi yambiri yowerenga ndipo ma encyclopedia adawathandiza kuphunzira zochulukirapo. Otsatsa amafuna kuwonjezera zomwe akutulutsa kuti mayiko ena monga Germany ayambe kugulitsa mabuku omwe akusowa zilembo za afabeti, kuti alenge mwachangu. Komanso, ofalitsa sakanakwanitsa kugula zinthu zonse pazokha, ofalitsa ambiri amabwera limodzi ndi zomwe amapeza kuti apange ma encyclopedia abwino. Pamene kufalitsa pamlingo womwewo kudakhala kovuta kupeza ndalama, iwo adayamba kulembetsa komanso zolemba zawo. Izi zinali zowopsa kwa osindikiza chifukwa amayenera kupeza anthu omwe amalipira ngongole yonse kapena amalipira. Akagwira ntchito, likulu limakwera ndipo pamakhala ndalama zokwanira zolemba kumaensaikulopediya. Pambuyo pake, mikangano idakula, ndikupangitsa kuti copyright zizichitika chifukwa chokhala ndi malamulo osakhazikika. Ofalitsa ena amatha kutengera ntchito ya wofalitsa wina kuti apange encyclopedia mwachangu komanso yotsika mtengo kotero kuti ogula alibe kulipira ndalama zambiri ndipo amagulitsa zochulukirapo. Encyclopedias idafikira pomwe nzika zapakati zimatha kukhala ndi laibulale yaying'ono m'nyumba mwawo. Anthu aku Europe anali kuchita chidwi ndi zomwe zimawazungulira zomwe zimawapangitsa kuti apandukire boma lawo.[30]

mainsaikulopediya Traditional

Kuyamba kwa lingaliro lamakono lazolinga zazikuluzonse, cholinga chosindikizidwa mofala kwambiri isanafike zakale za m'ma 18. Komabe, Chambers' Cyclopaedia, kapena Universal Dictionary of Arts ndi Sayansi (1728), ndi Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot ndi Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1751 mtsogolo), komanso Encyclopædia Britannica ndi Zokambirana-Lexikon, anali oyamba kuzindikira mawonekedwe omwe tikanazindikira lero, okhala ndi mitu yambiri, yomwe idakambidwa mozama komanso yolinganizidwa mwanjira yabwino. Chambers, mu 1728, adatsatira kutsogola koyambirira kwa a John Harris Lexicon Technicum za 1704 ndi mitundu yamtsogolo (onaninso pansipa); Ntchito iyi inali ndi mutu wake komanso mitu yake "A Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Science: Kufotokozera osati Malangizo okha, koma ndi Zojambula Zawo".

Ma encyclopedia otchuka komanso otchipa monga Harmsworth's Universal Encyclopaedia ndi Ana Encyclopaedia adawonekera koyambirira kwa 1920s.

Ku United States, ma 1950 ndi 1960 adawona kukhazikitsidwa kwa ma bukhu apadera ambiri otchuka, omwe nthawi zambiri amagulitsidwa pamakina a ukufaka. Odziwika bwino a awa anali Buku la Dziko ndi Funk ndi Wagnalls. Pafupifupi 90% anagulitsidwa khomo ndi khomo. Jack Lynch anatero m'buku lake Mutha Kuwayang'ana ogulitsa ma encyclopedia anali ofala kwambiri mwakuti anayamba nthabwala. Akufotokozera kukwera kwa malonda awo nati, "Sankagulitsa mabuku koma moyo, tsogolo, lonjezo lodzacheza." A 1961 Buku la Dziko malonda adati, "Mukugwira tsogolo la banja lanu m'manja mwanu," ndikuwonetsa dzanja lachikazi litagwira fomu yolamula.[31]

Kutsatsa kwa 1913 kwa Encyclopædia Britannica, yakale kwambiri komanso imodzi mwazonse zodziwika bwino kwambiri za Chingerezi zamakono

Hafu yachiwiri ya zaka za zana la 20 idawonanso kuchulukana kwa ma enisaikulopediya apadera omwe amapanga mitu m'magulu ena, makamaka kuti athandizire mafakitale ndi akatswiri ena. Izi zikupitilirabe. Ma buku osachepera muyeso umodzi tsopano alipo ambiri kuposa onse maphunziro ophunzira, kuphatikiza mitu yopapatiza monga bioethics.

Kukula kwa ma encyclopedia a digito ndi intaneti

Podzafika kumapeto kwa zaka za zana la 20, ma encyclopedia anali atasindikizidwa pa Ma CD-ROM kugwiritsa ntchito ndi makompyuta anu. Microsoft's Encarta, yomwe idasindikizidwa pakati pa 1993 ndi 2009, inali chitsanzo chachikulu popeza chidafanana chilichonse. Zolemba zidathandizidwa ndi mafayilo onse amakanema ndi makanema komanso zithunzi zambiri zapamwamba.[32]

Tekinoloje zamakono ndi intaneti crowdsourcing adalola ma ensaikulopediya kusiya njira zachikhalidwe zopumira komanso zozama zomwe zakambidwa. Wikipedia, gulu la anthu, Zinenero zambiri, layisensi yotseguka, free encyclopedia pa intaneti kuthandizidwa ndi osapeza phindu Wikimedia Foundation ndi gwero lotseguka MediaWiki Mapulogalamu adatsegulidwa mu 2001. Mosiyana ndi ma ensaikulopediya pa intaneti monga Encyclopædia Britannica Online, omwe amalembedwa ndi akatswiri, Wikipedia imapangidwa mogwirizana ndipo imasungidwa ndi okonza odzipereka, yokonzedwa ndi mogwirizana anavomera malangizo ndi maudindo ogwiritsa ntchito. Opereka ambiri amagwiritsa ntchito ma pseudonyms ndikukhala osadziwika. Zolemba zimayang'aniridwa, kufufuzidwa, kusungidwa kapena kuchotsedwa pamaziko a phindu lakelo komanso zakunja magwero kuchirikiza.

Kudalirika kwa ma encyclopedia yachikhalidwe, kumbali yawo, kumaimira olemba ndi akatswiri ogwirizana nawo. Ophunzitsa ambiri, aphunzitsi, komanso atolankhani amakana ndipo akupitiliza kukana ma bukhu otseguka, opangidwa ndi anthu ambiri, makamaka Wikipedia, monga gwero lodalirika lazidziwitso, ndipo Wikipedia palokha siigwero lodalirika molingana ndi mfundo zake chifukwa chodalirika komanso chosadziwika crowdsourcing Chitsanzo.[33] Phunziro la Nature mu 2005 adapeza kuti zolemba za Wikipedia za sayansi zidafanana kwambiri ndi zomwe Encyclopædia Britannica, yomwe ili ndi chiwerengero chomwecho cha zolakwitsa zazikulu ndi pafupifupi 1/3 zolakwika zazing'ono zowona, koma zomwe Wikipedia zidalemba zinali zosokoneza komanso zosawerengeka.[34] Encyclopædia Britannica anakana zomwe anamaliza phunziroli, poganiza kuti phunziroli linali lolakwika.[35] Pofika mwezi wa february 2014, Wikipedia inali ndi masamba 18 biliyoni ndi alendo pafupifupi 500 miliyoni mwezi uliwonse.[36] otsutsa khalani ziwonetsero za Wikipedia mwatsatanetsatane.[37][38]

Pali mitundu ingapo yaying'ono kwambiri, nthawi zambiri imakhala yodziwika bwino, pamalembedwe osiyanasiyana, nthawi zina imaperekedwa ku dera kapena nthawi.[39] Chitsanzo chimodzi cha Stanford Encyclopedia Philosophy.

Encyclopedia zazikulu

Monga cha koyambirira kwa 2020s, ma ensaikulopediya akuluakulu ndi Chinese Baidu Baike (Zolemba 16 miliyoni) komanso Hudong Baike (13 miliyoni), ndikutsatiridwa Wikipedias chifukwa English (6 miliyoni), German (+2 miliyoni) ndi French (+2 miliyoni).[40] Oposa ena 1 a Wikipedias ali ndi zolemba XNUMX miliyoni kapena kuposerapo, zamitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi kutalika.[40] Kuyeza kukula kwa ma encyclopedia ndi zolemba zake ndi njira yovuta kwambiri kuyambira pa intaneti Ma encyclopedia achi China Osimbidwa pamwambapa amalola zolemba zingapo pamutu womwewo, pomwe Wikipedias amalola nkhani imodzi imodzi pamutu uliwonse koma amalola kuti pakhale zolemba zokha.

Onaninso

Chithunzi: Div col

Chiwonetsero: Div col end Chitsulo: Mutu wagulu

zolemba

Chithunzi: Fufuzani

Zothandizira

Chinsinsi: Refbegin

Kutengera: Refresh

limasonyeza kunja

Chinsinsi: Wiktionary Chinsinsi: Gulu la Commons Chinsinsi: Wikisource portal

Chidule: Kuwongolera ulamuliro

  1. Chithunzi: Tchulani intaneti Mndandanda wamalamulo a Library. Riverside City College, Digital Library / Learning Resource Center. Zobwezeredwa pa: Novembala 17, 2007.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Chotsala: Chitira buku
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Béjoint, Henri (2000). Mbiri yamakono, mas. 30-31. Oxford University Press. Chinsinsi: ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 Chithunzi: Tchulani intaneti
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Chotsala: Chitira buku
  6. 6.0 6.1 Chotsala: Chitira buku
  7. Ἐγ .ύύ.. Ιπ., Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 1.10.1, ku Perseus Project
  8. Zambiri, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Greek-English Lexicon, ku Perseus Project
  9. ππδδ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Greek-English Lexicon, ku Perseus Project
  10. Malinga ndi nkhani zina, monga Chiyankhulo cha American Heritage Chinsinsi: Webarchive, okopera zolemba pamanja za Chilatini adatengera mawuwa kukhala liwu limodzi lachi Greek, enkyklopaedia.
  11. Chotsala: Chitira buku
  12. Chotsala: Chitira buku
  13. Chotsala: Chitira buku
  14. Chinsinsi: Fotokoza
  15. Chidule: Msonkhano
  16. Chotsala: Chitira buku
  17. Chithunzi: Tchulani intaneti
  18. 18.0 18.1 Chinsinsi: Chula
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Chotsala: Chitira buku
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Chotsala: Chitira buku
  21. Naturalis Mbiri
  22. Chotsala: Chitira buku
  23. PD Wightman (1953), Kukula kwa Maganizo a Sayansi
  24. 24.0 24.1 Chotsala: Chitira buku
  25. Monique Paulmier-Foucart, "Medieval Encyclopaedias", ku André Vauchez (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, James Clarke & Co, 2002.
  26. Onani "Encyclopedia" mu Dictionary wa Ages Middle.
  27. Pliny Mkulu, Naturalis Mbiri, Mawu Oyamba 14.
  28. Quintilian, Institutio oratoria, 1.10.1: mumaphunzitsanso zinthu zosafunikira, phunzitsani Graeci.
  29. έγέγυυλ λέγ., Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Greek-English Lexicon, ku Perseus Project: "fl [= falsa lectio, Chilatini cha "kuwerengera zabodza"] ἐγἐγύύ λλιί
  30. Chinsinsi: Chula
  31. Chithunzi: Tchulani intaneti
  32. Chinsinsi: Tchulani encyclopedia
  33. Chithunzi: Tchulani intaneti
  34. Chinsinsi: ChulaChinsinsi: Kulembetsa pamafunika Chidziwitso: Phunziroli lidatchulidwa m'nkhani zingapo; mwachitsanzo:
  35. Chithunzi: Tchulani intaneti
  36. Chithunzi: Tchulani nkhani
  37. Chinsinsi: Chula
  38. Chinsinsi: Chula
  39. Sideris A., "Lingaliro la Encyclopedic mu Web Era", ku Ioannides M., Arnold D., Niccolucci F. ndi K. Mania (ed.), The e-volution of Information Communication Technology mu Cultural Heritage. Komwe Hi-Tech Imakhudzira Zakale: Zowopsa ndi Zovuta Za M'zaka Zam'ma 21. VAST 2006, Epoch, Budapest 2006, masamba 192-197. Chinsinsi: ISBN.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Chithunzi: Tchulani intaneti